essay questions

Compilation of long essay questions.

  1. Explain the structure of bacterial cell with the aid of a neatly labelled diagram. Also mention the roles of these structures and methods of their detection.
  2. Define sterilization. Classify various methods of sterilization with suitable examples.
  3. Define disinfection. Classify various methods of disinfection with suitable examples.
  4. What are culture media. Classify the types of culture media with examples and their uses.
  5. Describe the various methods of horizontal gene transfer among bacteria and mention their significance.
  6. Enlist the virulence factors of Staphylococcus aureus. Describe the various conditions caused by this bacterium along with their laboratory diagnosis.
  7. Classify Streptococci. Describe the virulence factors of Streptococcus pyogenes along with the lesions produced and the laboratory diagnosis.
  8. Enumerate the pyogenic bacteria. Describe the procedure involved in the diagnosis of any suppurative infection.
  9. What is pyogenic meningitis? Enlist the various etiological agents and describe the pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis of Neisseria meningitis.
  10. Which are the bacterial STDs? Write the pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis and treatment of gonorrhoea.
  11. Name the infections produced by pneumococcus. Describe the pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis of pneumococal pneumonia.
  12. Classify Mycobacteria. Describe the pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis of pulmonary tuberculosis.
  13. Enlist the bacterial zoonotic diseases. Describe the pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis of anthrax.
  14. Define Pyrexia of Unknown Origin. Describe the pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis and treatment of brucellosis.
  15. Describe the pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis of diphtheria.
  16. Classify Clostridia. Describe the pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis of gas gangrene.
  17. Classify the non-sporing anaerobes. Describe the various infections produced by them and the strategies adopted to culture them.
  18. Classify Enterobacteriaceae. Mention the various infections produced by Escherichia coli. Describe the laboratory diagnosis and treatment of acute cystitis.
  19. Name the bacteria capable of causing dysentery. Describe the pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis and treatment of bacillary dysentery.
  20. Describe the etiology, pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis of enteric fever.
  21. Enumerate the bacteria causing gastroenteritis. Describe the pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis of cholera.
  22. What is meant by nosocomial infection? Which are common nosocomial pathogens? Describe the various infections produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
  23. Name the bacterial etiolgical agents of food-poisoning. Describe the strategy involved in diagnosing outbreaks of food-poisoning.
  24. Describe the pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis of plague.
  25. Describe the pathogenesis, classification, laboratory diagnosis, and treatment of leprosy.
  26. Name the bacterial STDs. Describe the pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis, and treatment of syphilis.
  27. Classify treponemes. Describe the pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis, and treatment of leptospirosis.
  28. Classify Rickettsiae. Describe the etiology, pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis and treatment of spotted fevers.
  29. Classify Chlamydia. Describe the various infections produced by C. trachomatis along with its laboratory diagnosis and treatment.
  30. Classify fungi and their diseases. Describe the procedures involved in laboratory diagnosis of mycoses.
  31. What are dermatophytes? Enlist the various dermatophytic infections along with their etiological agents. Describe the process of laboratory diagnosis and treatment.
  32. Name the sub-cutaneous fungal infections along with their etiological agent. Describe the pathogenesis and laboratory diagnosis of eumycotic mycetoma.
  33. Name the systemic fungal infections along with their etiological agent. Describe the pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis and treatment of histoplasmosis.
  34. Enumerate the opportunistic fungal infections along with their etiological agent. Describe the pathogenesis and laboratory diagnosis of candidiasis.
  35. Classify viruses. Describe the strategies adopted in the laboratory diagnosis of viral infections.
  36. Classify Herpes viruses. Describe the pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis, and treatment of HSV infections.
  37. Name the viruses causing hepatitis. Describe the pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis, prophylaxis and treatment of HBV infection.
  38. Classify arboviruses. Describe the pathogenesis and laboratory diagnosis of dengue.
  39. Describe the pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis, and prophylaxis of rabies.
  40. Enlist the oncogenic viruses. Describe the mechanism of oncogenic transformation.
  41. Describe the pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis, and treatment of HIV infection.
  42. Name the virus transmitted parenterally. Describe the pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis, and treatment of HCV.
  43. Name the sexually transmitted viral infections and their etiological agents. Describe the pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis, and treatment of papilloma virus.
  44. Enlist the viruses causing respiratory tract infections. Describe the pathogenesis and laboratory diagnosis of influenza.
  45. Name the viral diseases of childhood. Describe the etiology, pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis and prophylaxis of measles.
  46. Name the opportunistic viral diseases. Describe the pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis and treatment of CMV infections.
  47. Classify Picornaviridae. Describe the pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis and prophylaxis of polio.
  48. Enumerate the nematodes infesting intestine. Describe the life cycle, laboratory diagnosis and treatment of roundworm/hookworm/pinworm.
  49. Classify tapeworms. Describe the life cycle, laboratory diagnosis and treatment of conditions produced by tapeworm.
  50. Describe the life cycle, pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis and treatment of entamoeba infection.
  51. Describe the etiology, life cycle, pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis and treatment of toxoplasmosis.
  52. Name the parasites causing infections in the immunocompromised. Describe the pathogenesis and laboratory diagnosis of Cryptosporidium.
  53. Name the species of Plasmodium and differentiate their features. Describe the life cycle, laboratory diagnosis and treatment of malaria.
  54. Name the filarial nematodes. Describe the life cycle, laboratory diagnosis and treatment of bancroftian filariasis.
  55. Name the parasites causing infection of the nervous system. Describe the life cycle, laboratory diagnosis and treatment of Acanthamoeba infection.
  56. Classify antigen-antibody reactions. Describe the various types of agglutination/precipitation reactions along with examples.
  57. Draw a neat and labelled diagram of an IgG molecule. Describe the properties of all the classes of immunoglobulins.
  58. Describe the cells of the reticuloendothelial system. Describe their role in innate immunity.
  59. Classify immunity. Describe the various mechanism of innate/acquired immunity.
  60. Classify hypersensitivity reactions. Describe the mechanism of action of Immediate/Delayed hypersensitivity reactions.
  61. What is autoimmunity. Describe the pathogenesis of various autoimmune disorders and tests employed to detect them.
  62. What are immunodeficiency disorders? Describe briefly the various T-cell/B-cell related immunodeficiencies.
  63. What is the basis of humoral/cell-mediated immune response? Describe the process with an illustration.
  64. Classify vaccines. Write notes on various vaccines administered as per national immunization programme.
  65. Draw the two common complement activation pathways and describe the importance of complement in health and disease.

Compilation of short essay questions.

  1. Contributions of Louis Pasteur
  2. Contributions of Robert Koch
  3. Koch’s postulates
  4. Nobel Prize winners related to microbiology
  5. Morphological forms of bacteria
  6. Bacterial spore
  7. Flagella
  8. Bacterial cell wall
  9. Bacterial capsule
  10. Intracytoplasmic inclusions
  11. L-forms
  12. Pili
  13. Biofilm
  14. Endotoxin
  15. Differences between endotoxin and exotoxin
  16. Bacteriocine
  17. Darkground staining
  18. Negative staining
  19. Phase-contrast microscope
  20. Electron microscope
  21. Differences between eukaryotes and prokaryotes
  22. Antiseptics
  23. Quaternary ammonium compounds
  24. Chemisterilants
  25. Autoclave
  26. Hot air oven
  27. Tyndallization
  28. Inspissation
  29. Pasteurization
  30. Surface-active agents
  31. Sterilization controls
  32. Biosafety
  33. Selective media
  34. Enriched media
  35. McConkey’s agar
  36. Anaerobic culture media
  37. Biphasic media
  38. Transport media
  39. Bacterial growth curve
  40. Conjugation
  41. Transduction
  42. Transposons/jumping genes
  43. Mutation
  44. Polymerase Chain Reaction
  45. Plasmid
  46. String test
  47. Phage typing
  48. Biological safety cabinets
  49. Staphylococcal toxins
  50. Superantigen
  51. Toxic Shock Syndrome
  52. Coagulase test
  53. Catalase test
  54. MRSA
  55. Antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus
  56. Coagulase Negative Staphylococci
  57. ASO test
  58. Flesh eating bacteria
  59. CAMP test
  60. Enterococci
  61. Viridans Streptococci
  62. Quellung reaction
  63. C-Reaction Protein (CRP)
  64. Pneumococcal vaccine
  65. Meningococcal vaccine
  66. Oxidase test
  67. Non-gonoccal urethritis (NGU)/ Non-specific urethritis
  68. Elek’s test
  69. Lysogenic conversion
  70. Diphtheroids
  71. Toxigenicity tests for Corynebactium diphtheria
  72. DPT vaccine
  73. Malignant pustule
  74. Hide Porter’s disease
  75. Nagler reaction
  76. Litmus milk test/Stormy clot
  77. Toxins of Clostridium perfringens
  78. Antibiotic associated pseudomembranous colitis
  79. Bacterioides
  80. Actinomycosis
  81. Bacterial vaginosis
  82. McIntosh Filde’s Jar/GasPak system
  83. Bacterial normal flora
  84. Traveler’s diarrhea
  85. ETEC/EIEC/EHEC/EPEC
  86. Presumptive coliform count
  87. Diarrheagenic E. coli
  88. Serodiagnosis of typhoid fever/Widal test
  89. Halophilic Vibrios
  90. Kanagawa phenomenon
  91. Bacterial pigments
  92. Meliodosis
  93. Cat scratch disease
  94. Rat bite fever
  95. X and V factor
  96. Satellitism
  97. Chancroid
  98. HACEK bacteria
  99. Acellular pertussis vaccine
  100. Q fever
  101. Drug resistance in M. tuberculosis/MDR-TB/XDR-TB
  102. Acid Fast Staining
  103. BCG vaccine
  104. Tuberculin test
  105. Lepromin test
  106. RNTCP guidelines on diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis
  107. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis
  108. MOTT/NTM
  109. VDRL/RPR test
  110. Specific Treponemal tests
  111. Non-venereal Treponematosis
  112. Lyme’s disease
  113. Vincent’s angina/Fusospirochetosis
  114. Ludwig’s angina
  115. Nocardia
  116. Helicobacter pylori
  117. PPLO
  118. Weil-Felix test
  119. Trachoma
  120. Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV)
  121. Bacterial infections of the eye
  122. Antifungal drugs
  123. Mycetism/Mycotoxicosis
  124. Fungal culture media
  125. Dermatophytes
  126. Candidiasis
  127. Cryptococcosis
  128. Dimorphic fungi
  129. Aspergillosis
  130. Id reaction
  131. Dematiaceous fungi
  132. Mycetoma
  133. Rhinosporidiosis
  134. Sporotrichosis
  135. Histoplasmosis
  136. Fungal spores
  137. Viral replication
  138. Cultivation of viruses
  139. Viral morphology
  140. Interferon
  141. Inclusion bodies
  142. Negri body
  143. Cell culture/Tissue culture
  144. Bacteriophage
  145. Viral vaccines
  146. Cytopathic effect
  147. Oncogenesis
  148. Burkitts’ lymphoma
  149. Viral latency
  150. Prion diseases
  151. Delta virus
  152. HBsAg
  153. Immune response to Hepatitis virus
  154. HCV
  155. Rabies vaccines
  156. Ebola virus
  157. Dengue shock syndrome
  158. Diarrheal viruses
  159. Antiviral drugs
  160. Molluscum contagiosum
  161. HIV post-exposure prophylaxis
  162. Swine flue/Bird flu
  163. Chikungunya virus
  164. Emerging viral diseases
  165. AIDS
  166. SARS
  167. Infectious mononucleosis
  168. Varicella-zoster
  169. Complement
  170. B-cell/T-cell
  171. MHC restriction
  172. HLA system/typing
  173. Cytokines
  174. IgG/IgM/IgA/IgE
  175. Monoclonal antibody
  176. Immunofluorescence
  177. ELISA
  178. Immunodiffusion
  179. Heterophile tests
  180. Western Blot
  181. Southern Blot
  182. Abnormal immunoglobulins
  183. Class switching
  184. Lectin pathway
  185. Properdin pathway
  186. Phagocytes
  187. Tolerance
  188. Host vs Graft reaction
  189. Graft vs Host reaction
  190. Immunological surveillance
  191. DiGeorge’s syndrome
  192. Anaphylaxis
  193. NK cells/LGLs
  194. Complement deficiencies
  195. Coomb’s test
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